The Rock Pipit is almost exclusively a coastal bird although birds from Scandinavia do migrate and may turn up elsewhere. They are larger than Meadow Pipits, almost as big as a Tawny Pipit, and they are strikingly dark, so much so that the black streaks on their underparts become almost lost in a dark grey-brown wash. They can be told from the similar Water Pipit by their dull grey, not white, outer tail feathers and by their all dark head with no eye-stripe or wingbars. To confuse matters though, Scandinavian Rock Pipits of the race A.p.littoralis may have obvious eye-stripes and some white in their outer tail and in spring their breasts become paler, pinker and less streaked much like Water Pipits. Their outer tails, however, are always duller, often buffish and never completely white.